Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic (long-term), degenerative disorder of the brain, which is caused when an inadequate amount of dopamine is produced by the nerve cells.

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  • Family history
  • Exposure to chemicals, pesticides and toxins
  • History of serious head injury


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  • Shaking
  • Slow movement
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Stooped posture
  • Imbalance
  • Impaired unconscious movements, such as blinking and arm swing
  • Speech difficulties
  • Struggling to write
  • Swallowing and sphincter control problems may occur late in the disorder.
  • Bladder and bowel control
  • Reduced sense of smell
  • Constipation
  • Decreased mobility
  • Reduced facial expression






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Usually diagnosed by a Neurologist (a specialist trained in the nervous system) based on medical history, physical examination and symptoms.
Other disorders can be ruled out with the help of specialised scans and ultrasounds.
Sometimes medication intended for PD is given and an improvement in the symptoms confirms the diagnosis.


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  • Choking
  • Pneumonia
  • Injuries from falling
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Depression
  • Dementia


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Even though there is no existing cure for PD, medication can help with the management of the symptoms.
These medications are usually designed to increase the amount of dopamine in the brain either by replacing it, mimicking its action, or increasing its amount by inhibiting its breakdown.


As the disease progresses, symptoms may evolve or progress, requiring regular review of medication. Should your condition deteriorate while you are on treatment, consult your Doctor or Neurologist for advice.

In cases of advanced PD, brain surgery has proved to be beneficial.

Specialised physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy may assist.
Following a healthy lifestyle and exercising is recommended.
In some cases, supporting medication for other symptoms, such as depression, reduced concentration, impaired bladder control and bowel control, pain and spasms may be required.


  • Avoid leaning and rather distribute weight evenly between the feet
  • Always walk forwards and never backwards
  • Watch where you are going
  • Avoid carrying heavy things that can throw you off balance and/or obscure your view of where you are stepping


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Parkinsonism is a syndrome characterized by which is a group of symptoms rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia. Parkinson’s disease accounts for around 80% of these cases, but these symptoms can be caused by other conditions (Normal pressure hydrocephalus, Wilsons disease where there is a build-up of Copper in the body) and by some medications, which are generally reversible.


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If you suspect that you may have PD and have booked an appointment with your doctor, do the following prior to the appointment:
Make a list of all the medication that you are taking – prescription and non-prescription
Keep written track of all the symptoms that you are experiencing so that your doctor can go through them with you
Make notes of recent life changes, stresses, injuries or accidents that you need to share with your doctor
Ask a family member or friend to accompany you
Make notes of the questions that you might have for your doctor


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Stay informed about the disease and new developments in treatment but watch out for all the masses of false information.
Have regular follow-ups with your doctor
Exercise is very important and one of the few things that can change the course of the disorder.
Build support through family, friends and joining a local PD support group.


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As with all other chronic diseases careful follow up and adjustments to treatment will be necessary to maintain good symptom control.



Please Note: This is an educational information leaflet only and should not be used for diagnosis. For more information on Parkinson’s Disease, consult your healthcare professional.

1. Butler, N. (2010), ‘Parkinson’s Disease Guidelines’, SA Pharmaceutical Journal 2. Kies, C.B. and Fine, J. (2009), ‘Guideline for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease’, SAMJ, vol.99, no. 10. 3. De Maagd, G. and Philip, A. (2015), ‘Part 1: Disease Entity, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis’, Parkinson’s Disease and its Management, 40(8), pp. 504-510, 532. 4. Davie, C. A. (2008), ‘A Review of Parkinson’s Disease’, British Medical Bulletin, vol. 86, no.1, pp. 109-127. 5. Jankovic, J. (2008), ‘Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical Features and Diagnosis’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 79, no. 4. 6. Savitt, J.M., Dawson, V.L. and Dawson, T.M. (2006), ‘Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson Disease: Molecules to Medicine’, The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Ayano, G. (2016), ‘Parkinson’s Disease; A Concise Overview of Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Comorbidity and Management’, Journal of Neurological Disorders. Brought to you by cipla Related Information POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) PTSD is a serious and often debilitating medical condition that can occur in anyone who has experienced a traumatic event DEPRESSION MEDICATION SUPPLEMENT Depression is a common medical condition that has a big impact on a large number of areas in peoples’ lives DEMENTIA Dementia is the umbrella term for a range of progressive neurological disorders affecting brain functioning, including Alzheimer’s disease ANXIETY DISORDER There are five major anxiety disorders, and one of the most common is generalised anxiety disorder or GAD.

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